(Review) James Waterson, Defending Heaven: China’s Mongol Wars 1209-1370, (Frontline Books, 2013)

I have decided to add a ‘book review’ section to my blog because, well, I get asked to write a lot of book reviews! So here’s one to start it off which I particularly enjoyed reading:

(Review) James Waterson, Defending Heaven: China’s Mongol Wars 1209-1370, (Frontline Books, 2013)

Pages: 236           ISBN: 9781848326606

Asian medieval history is a very alien world when compared to European medieval history; especially when it concerns military history. At the drop of a hat, the Song dynasty could muster an army of 2-300,000 men; they could have a state-funded, standing army of over 1,000,000 men; they could throw explosives around a battlefield; and they could fire projectiles with the aid of gunpowder – this just wasn’t imaginable in Europe at that time. What they could not do was stop the Mongol tide from washing over their lands, and a major cause of this will sound very familiar to European historians – they could never unite and face the Mongols as a single force. Continue reading

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Busy, busy, busy

As I predicted, my blog has become rather quiet as of late; apologies! I have been winding down my freelance work to focus on my books and PhD, so there has been little time for things like this.

Anyway, a quick update. A joint article has come out which pits myself against Dr. Jason Crowley, tackling the PTSD in Ancient Greece debate. I’m particularly pleased with this one, not just for the content, nor for the privilege of sharing the page with one of the foremost experts on the topic, but also because the editors of AW re-arranged their templates to pose both arguments side by side giving it the real feel of a debate. It was left open for conclusions, as the point was to make people come up with their own, which hopefully it has done. I have since had an article published on Ancient Greek military homecomings, and another on the campaigns of Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War.

Once I have completed my last article, which is a debate piece concerning the ineptitude or ingenuity of Greek sieges, I will have time to work more on my second book which will be a companion/follow up to my first. Great Battles is with the typesetter at the moment and is available to pre-order, for those so inclined (excuse the shameless plug). And, while Great Naval Battles of the Ancient Greek World is not as far along as I had hoped at this stage, it is certainly a lot of fun to write, and should be out the end of next year.

So other than that I am giving a few papers through the year; one in Gothenburg, on Greek siege-craft, which I am very excited about, and another in London, on classical Greek military departure scenes, which I will post about again soon I think.

 

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Ancient Greek Fatherhood

Apologies for the dearth of blogs, but there have been many changes around here that have made it harder and harder to find the time. The most fundamental change has been my acceptance to pursue a PhD at Manchester Metropolitan University. This in turn has brought about other tangential changes which have been hard to adjust to.

As many of you know I have been a stay-at-home Dad for 2 years. A position that has brought much joy, and frustration, but has sadly come to an end; replaced by full time study. My eldest, of two, is 3yrs old and has recently embarked on her latest adventure: pre-school. This has been both a joyous and heart wrenching occasion for me and my wife, and subsequently has put me in a reflective mood on the notion of fatherhood.

When the decision was first made that I would stay at home with the children I remember a good friend asking me, in earnest, “But how does that affect your . . . manliness”.

It was a strange question, but one that came from our paralleled youth and the questions of identity and gender roles that such an age produces. The use of the term ‘manliness’ betrays my friend’s Classics background, it is the translation for the ancient Greek word andreia, and also got me thinking about ancient Greek attitudes to fatherhood.

There is a persistent belief that the involvement of fathers in the raising of their children, or even simply enjoying time with their children, is somehow a modern behaviour. At first glance the ancient sources seem to agree, with father’s often depicted as stern, strong, powerful, or vulnerable, but rarely loving, and almost never playful with their children.

Aristotle simply condemns a father’s love as inferior to that of a mother’s:

“Now to receive a benefit seems to involve no labour, but to confer one is an effort. This is why mothers love their children more than fathers, because parenthood costs the mother more trouble [and the mother is more certain that the child is her own].” (Nicomachean Ethics, 1168a)

While in another work, the philosopher claims that fathers only like their children for one reason:

“Since, then, all men are selfish, it follows that all find pleasure in what is their own, such as their works and words. That is why men as a rule are fond of those who flatter and love them, of honour, and of children; for the last are their own work.” (Rhetoric, 1.11.26)

Yet, it is not all doom and gloom for Dads. In Euripides’ play, Herakles, the eponymous hero declares his love for his children, a love that is shared by all men for their offspring:

“[F]or I too do not reject the care of my children; here all mankind are equal; all love their children, both those of high estate and those who are nothing; it is wealth that makes distinctions among them; some have, others want; but all the human race loves its offspring.” (Herakles, 633-636)

Rather unfortunately, and *spoiler alert* for any who have not seen nor read the play, this speech is steeped in irony. Herakles’ love for his children will not save him from the madness that later consumes him; a madness which drives him to slaughter those same children. So, while this episode does show an almost idealistic love of a father with his children, it is not perhaps the best example – filicide is not a desirable trait in a Dad.

There is one example of an ancient Greek Dad enjoying his time with his children and, returning to my friend’s question earlier, there is no manlier man in classical Greece than the Spartan warrior-king, Agesilaos II:

“It is a fact also that Agesilaos was excessively fond of his children, and a story is told of his joining in their childish play. Once, when they were very small, he bestrode a stick, and was playing horse with them in the house, and when he was spied doing this by one of his friends, he entreated him not to tell anyone, until he himself should be a father of children.” (Plutarch, Life of Agesilaos, 25.5)

Here is a touching moment that can transcend culture and time; a moment that many Dads can relate to, where they are making a complete fool of themselves to entertain and play with their children. It is also interesting to see that the king’s response to his friend seems akin to a modern phrase often heard, to the ire of many I’m sure: “you’ll understand when you have kids of your own”.

Needless to say I did not have a good answer to my friend’s question then, and I don’t really have one now. The impact that a child has on you is immense; but its impact on manliness, which must surely be an external assessment made about you not an internal reflection, must remain subjective. For me, I’ll stick with Agesilaos, for the laughter of my children is worth more to me than the nodding approval of my peers.

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Ancient views on the ‘no make-up selfie’ – sort of

Just a short note that I have a new blog up on the IRIS online site. It is about the seemingly similar views we hold with our ancient Greek counterparts concerning makeup and beauty:

View here

There are some big developments happening here so excuse the short blog. Among other things the first book is drafted and with my editor (!), and I have already begun its counterpart/sequel.

In haste …

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New blog: New Eyes on …

Book being read: My own! I have completely drafted my book on Great Battles of the Ancient Greeks and I am currently proofreading it to within an inch of its life!

In other news I have just started a blog series for the charity the IRIS Project, via their website IRIS online. My brief was to create a blog series that was light-hearted, but informative, aimed at an audience which spans from school aged students, to people older than my Grandma! Continue reading

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